What is the relationship between Parliament and the Government?

The Government is the most important body of executive power, and the primary director of public administration. This means that it implements decisions made by Parliament, as the legislative organ, and it pursues realization of the goals laid out in the Government’s programme. The Government shall be the general body of executive power, and its responsibilities and competences shall include all matters not expressly delegated by the Fundamental Law or other legislation to the responsibilities and competences of another body. The Hungarian Government comprises the Prime Minister and government ministers. The Prime Minister is the head of the Government. The Prime Minister shall issue decrees to designate one or two Ministers to serve as Deputy Prime Ministers.

How does governmental structure influence the Government’s operation?

Hungary's political system is a parliamentary one, which is to say that the Government is accountable to Parliament. This means that Parliament has the right to monitor the work of the Government, and if it concludes that the Government is not pursuing its responsibilities satisfactorily, it may withdraw its support for it through a so-called "constructive vote of no confidence".

How is the Prime Minister elected, and what are the main tasks associated with the post?

Members of Parliament elect a Prime Minister following a proposal from the President of the Republic. (Parliament votes on the Government’s programme at the same time.) The election of the Prime Minister shall be subject to a majority vote of the Members of Parliament. The Prime Minister shall take office on the day of his or her election. The task of the Prime Minister is to determine the general direction of government policy, within the context of the Government’s programme. The President of the Republic appoints ministers according to the Prime Minister’s recommendations. In addition to this, the Prime Minister chairs cabinet meetings and ensures the implementation of government decisions. The Government shall be formed through the appointment of Ministers. Members of the Government shall swear an oath before Parliament.

Who deputises for the Prime Minister?

The Prime Minister may nominate one or more deputy prime ministers, chosen from the members of the Cabinet. From 2010 to 2014 there were two deputy prime ministers, who carried out specific tasks in addition to deputising for the Prime Minister in certain cases as specified by him. One of these deputy prime ministers was responsible for the structure and efficient operation of public administration, while the other coordinated and guided work related to national policy and church affairs.

What are the duties of a Minister?

The majority of a Minister’s work involves the guidance and supervision of a given ministry. It is the task of a Minister to develop legislative proposals to facilitate effective operation within the Minister's specialist area of responsibility, and to implement the government programme. A Minister's responsibilities also include representing the Hungarian Government at the European Council, or at other international organisations.

What Secretaries of State are there?

According to the new structure of public administration created in 2011, a Minister of State has full power to deputize for the Minister who directs the work of Minister of State. With the radical reduction of the numbers of ministries, a Minister directs several specialist departments; for example a single Minister is responsible for education, sport and healthcare and so Ministers of State play important roles in the direction of their respective specialist areas.

Ministers of State may be divided into three categories. Ministers of State responsible for specialist areas and Parliamentary Ministers of State are leaders of a political nature. A Minister of State for public administration is a specialist leader of a ministry’s administrative operations, while the responsibilities of a Parliamentary Minister of State relate to liaison with Parliament.